Steelmaking is an extensive industry based on modifying the physical properties of iron to fit a wide range of applications by either adding alloying elements or removal of impurities. It has been found that the density of ld slag lies between 3. Physical and chemical and mineralogical characteristics of ld steel slag. Secondary steelmaking involves treating the molten steel produced from both bos and eaf routes to adjust the steel composition. The oxygen steelmaking process is a generic name given to those processes in which gaseous oxygen is used as the primary agent for autothermic generation of heat as a result of the oxidation of dissolved impurities like carbon, silicon, manganese and phosphorus and to a limited extent the. Academic materials for the economics and management of industrial systems study programme at the faculty of metallurgy and materials engineering. Steelmaking the refining of iron to make steel is where the carbon content of hot metal is lowered, usually to less than 1 % by an oxidation process in a steelmaking furnace. The vessel volume is more than ld vessel to accommodate extra slag volume. Modelling of basic oxygen steel making process has significant utility as productivity and lining life of basic oxygen steelmaking bos is highly dependable. The name ld stands for linz and donawitz, these were the two places in austria where the. The eaf method, however, feeds recycled steel scrap through highpower electric arcs with temperatures of up to 1,650 degrees celsius to melt the metal and convert it into highquality steel. The basic oxygen furnace bof is a refractorylined, tiltable converter into which a vertically movable, watercooled lance is inserted to blow oxygen through nozzles at supersonic velocity. This article describes how these techniques have been used in 12 ld steel plants.
Modern methods, however, are still based the same premise as the bessemer process, namely, how to most efficiently use oxygen to lower the carbon content in iron. Bos is the most common and dominant primary steelmaking process used in the world today. The steelmaking process belongs to very complicated metallurgical processes. This model also contributes towards the prediction of sloping phenomenon taken place during basic oxygen steel making process. In this method, steel is produced directly from iron ore. Other articles where linzdonawitz process is discussed. It also presents new and improved solutions to producing high. A number of recent developments have widened the area of application of the ld, basic oxygen steelmaking process. Converter process control and technological packages the fundamental basis of high quality process operations our automation systems comprise the complete range of carbon steelmaking converters ld, bof, kobm as well as stainless steelmaking technologies aod, clu and kobms. Jun 21, 2016 apart from secondary steelmaking process, there is hisarna steelmaking process which goes under primary steelmaking. And these products are used everywhere in the world. Hisarna process is more effective and energyefficient.
In germany, ld steelmaking accounts for around 75 % of production, while the electric arc furnace is used for 25 %. Once steel is made, then it undergoes casting process, rolling process, and it becomes the final product. The basic oxygen furnace bof is a refractorylined, tiltable converter into which a vertically movable, watercooled lance is inserted to blow oxygen through nozzles at. In 1952 the linzdonawitz ld process also known as bof process was developed in austria and soon became the standard for iron ore based steelmaking. Overview of the steelmaking process pellets sinter limestone coke iron ore coal scrap blast furnace ironmaking converter steelmaking ladle refining blast furnace steelmaking coalnatural gas plate hotrolled bars rods tube rounds rails slab billet bloom hotrolled and coldrolled strip coils structural shapes. Converter carbon steelmaking primetals technologies. So all the used steel products are collected back to the iron and steel making plant, now we call this scrap. Such a process of steelmaking is called acid steelmaking process which is carried out in an acid brick lined furnace. In steelmaking, impurities such as nitrogen, silicon, phosphorus, sulfur and excess carbon most important impurity are removed from the sourced iron, and alloying elements such as manganese, nickel, chromium, carbon and vanadium are added to produce different grades of steel. Dec 29, 2012 it is a modified bessemer process, steel is produced in a solid bottom converter by injection of oxygen into the molten iron bath from a water cooled lance inserted through the converter mouth. On the other hand, to eliminate phosphorus and sulphur, the reverse reaction rate can only be suppressed if the slag contains a good amount of stronger base than as is internally available in the form of feo and mno. Basic oxygen steelmaking bos is the process of making steel by blowing pure o2 in a liquid metal bath contained in a vessel which is known as basic oxygen furnace bof, ld converter, or simply converter. Steelmaking is the process of producing steel from iron ore andor scrap. Model for indirect measurements of ld steelmaking process introduction at the present time the production of steel in ld converters belongs to the most widely used technology in manufacturing pig iron.
The purpose of the basic oxygen steelmaking bos process is to refine the hot metal produced in the blast furnace into raw liquid steel, which may be subsequently refined in the secondary. Oxidation is carried out with high purity oxygen gas which is blown in the bof. The bottom cylindrical part of the profile is called a. Steelmaking technologies contributing to steel industries. Direct reduction scrap ladle refining electric arc furnace steelmaking iron ore pellets electric arc furnace steelmaking continuous casting design by cover photo. In the linzdonawitz ld steelmaking process supersonic oxygen jets expand into the surroundings formed by hot and dense slag foam thus it is necessary to understand the innate characteristics. Tata steel has over the years, undertaken extensive research in. Salzgitter the process shown above is illustrative only and is not designed to show the steelmaking process in detail. Scrap acts as a coolant for the exothermic reactions inside the ld vessel and as an iron source in addition to hot metal. To develop computational and mathematical abilities to be applied for process design and control.
Dissolution of scrap in hot metal under linzdonawitz ld. However, if one goes back as far as the middle of the 19th century, one finds that henry bessemer, the englishman who developed the air refining process, what we now know as the. Modelling of basic oxygen steel making process has significant utility as. The optimization of the ld process is focused, amongst other factors, on thermodynamic and kinetic modelling. Apart from secondary steelmaking process, there is hisarna steelmaking process which goes under primary steelmaking. Ive just noticed that there are two separate pages on the basic oxygen furnace and process, that largely repeat the same information. For many years production was limited to specialty steels supplying niche applications for industry in the united states and the world.
The basic automation systems level 1 for converters. In the first step, the raw inputs iron ore, coke, and lime are melted in a blast furnace. Top oxygen blowing, widely referred to as the ld converter process, and steelmaking in the electric arc furnace, are nowadays the two most widely used steelmaking processes. Ironmaking and steelmaking processes greenhouse emissions, control, and reduction. The oh process started as an acid process with acid lining in the furnace, and then adopted the basic lining and new steelmaking practice as well. Development of the ld process the story of the ld process a series of experiments began on june 3, 1949 on the former voest site, using a 2tonne experimental converter. Overall both books are great references for the making, shaping, and treating of steel. Hybrid process for steelmaking of scrap and hot metal another particular furnace design comes from the interest in enlarging the flexibility in raw materials, particularly hot metal. Chemistry of steelmaking by basic oxygen furnace ispatguru. Basic oxygen furnace bof is a steel making furnace, in which molten pig iron and steel scrap convert into steel due to oxidizing action of oxygen blown into the melt under a basic slag. A thesis submitted to the school of graduate studies in partial fulfilent of the requirements for the degree. One of the main charging materials of the linzdonawitz oxygen steelmaking process ld is scrap.
The phosphorus content in ld slag is too high to be reused in iron making and onehundredth percent of phosphorus go to the metal phase. A primary steelmaking process refers to the actual process of taking the raw materials and. Merge basic oxygen steelmaking and basic oxygen furnace. Control of slopping in basic oxygen steelmaking by george k. Primary steelmaking known as linzdonawitzverfahren steelmaking 28. Steel making is mainly concerned with the removal of these impurities. The ld steelmaking practice process the ld converter lance ld shop layout charge calculations feed materials physico chemical characteristics of ld steelmaking description of a typical heat exit gases tapping modern trends post combustion slag splashing. Starting from its invention the process was continuously optimized and improved regarding consumption figures, productivity as well as maintenance and is nowadays used successfully in steel. Jan 12, 2017 a number of recent developments have widened the area of application of the ld, basic oxygen steelmaking process. Comparative assessment of ld converter and electric arc. An overview of use of linzdonawitz ld steel slag in. This book describes improvements in the iron and steel making process in the past few decades. Definitions of the process technologies considered herein can be found elsewhere in these proceedings in the paper titled influence of ais chemistry on eaf steelmaking. The name ld stands for linz and donawitz, these were the two places in austria where the process was born.
Characteristics of supersonic jets in ld steelmaking. A considerable portion of austrias iron and steel industry is involved with construction abroad. How steel is made using the basic oxygen steelmaking process. A new lance design for bof steelmaking request pdf. Donawitz ld converter with respect to blowing time. Profile of a blast furnace and its dimensions are adapted to technology of process, see figure.
Steelmaking the refining of iron to make steel is where the carbon content of hot metal is lowered, usually to less than 1 % by an oxidation process in a. Blowing oxygen through molten pig iron lowers the carbon content of the alloy and changes it into lowcarbon steel. The process had two main differences relative to the bessemer process. Blast furnace hot metal for ld basic oxygen furnace steelmaking process ideally contains about c4. Energy balance calculations are carried out on the bof ld converter steelmaking process using the hot metal with the composition shown in table. The earliest known production of steel are pieces of ironware excavated from an archaeological site in. More than half the worlds steel is produced in the basic oxygen process bop, which uses pure oxygen to convert a charge of liquid blastfurnace iron and scrap into steel. Pdf desphosphorization in ironmaking and oxygen steelmaking.
Once these steel products are used, then they are supposed to be recycled. It is nothing but the modification version of ld process which is known as ldac process linz donawitz arbed centre national process in which thomas iron are refined the furnace ldac is same like ld process only the construction of lance is alternate in which lime powder and oxygen are injected in the furnace. In a conventional eaf, as hot metal charge increases, the need for oxygen injection is bigger. Thomas4 optical microscopy, total oxygen measurements and slime tests have been conducted to quantify. These include ore cooling, production of highcarbon and lowalloy steels, and the utilization of highphosphorous hot metal. Basic oxygen furnace based steelmaking processes and. The purpose of this work is to develop a mathematical model to calculate the material balance. Alternative iron sources aisssteelmaking routes such as the fastmet process, the itmk3 process, fasteel, fastox, corex and hismelt. Ldconvertor atibir industries company limited steel. Introduction nippon steel corporation has endeavored to secure the worlds. Pig iron is divided into steelmaking pig iron, which is intended for further processing to.
Nov 14, 2016 the purpose of the basic oxygen steelmaking bos process is to refine the hot metal produced in the blast furnace into raw liquid steel, which may be subsequently refined in the secondary. The yield of ironsteel slag is about 300 kgtp per ton of pig iron for blast furnace slag and about 100150 kgts per ton of molten steel for steelmaking slag. Ld process is a refining process which is carried out in a ld vesselor ld converterbof. This phenomenon is especially frequent in a topblown basic oxygen steelmaking bos vessel, i. You will take charge of a ladle of molten steel from the basic oxygen furnace bof, and attempt to deliver it to the appropriate caster at the specified time, composition, temperature and inclusion content cleanness.
Be able to understand basic layout of blast furnace, steelmaking shop and continuous casting process. Because of high production costs, which are closely tied to the. Experimental method and examination of inclusions in steel experimental methods. Ironmaking and steelmaking metallurgical and materials. Basic oxygen steelmaking bos, bop, bof, or osm, also known as linzdonawitzsteelmaking or the oxygen converter process is a method of primary steelmaking in which carbonrich molten pig iron is made into steel.
A primary steelmaking process refers to the actual process of taking the raw materials and converting them to steel steelmaking. The present paper describes industrial clean steel production using the bof based steelmaking process and steel cleanliness control at baosteel. Modern steelmaking can be broken down into six steps. The major phases present in ld slag in other parts of world are also studied, that contain some reactive mineral phase such as 2cao.
Request pdf a new lance design for bof steelmaking this article summarizes the outcome of research work carried out to improve the performance of the oxygen lance in the ld steelmaking process. The resulting molten iron also referred to as hot metal still. Basic oxygen furnace based steelmaking processes and cleanliness control at baosteel l. This process is also called as basic oxygen process. Basic oxygen steelmaking bos, bop, bof, and osm, also known as linzdonawitzsteelmaking or the oxygen converter process is a method of primary steelmaking in which carbonrich molten pig iron is made into steel. Converter carbon steelmaking solutions primetals technologies. The process is on a cyclone converter furnace a new type of blast furnace. Slopping is the technical term used in steelmaking to describe the event when the slag foam cannot be contained within the process vessel, but is forced out through its opening. In this simulation you will play the role of plant metallurgist in charge of secondary steelmaking operations.358 64 653 329 852 547 927 1156 1378 912 507 1229 814 88 295 1278 143 735 693 795 610 1242 891 203 591 16 1081 860 407 1492 158 926